For each of the listed topics below it is provided a comprehensive view of the state of art of Research and Development (R&D). The scenario is outlined by the definition of scientific papers publishing trends, useful to understand the dynamics of the specific sector. The number of scientific papers published per year gives an indication of the R&D interest for the sector; main organisations give a first indication on the major players active in that sector. All data are reported with a time frame spanning from 2008, in order to take into account latest innovations. Other figures can be reported, such as papers cooperation network, Themescape maps, together with detailed analysis of relevant papers.